Radiological dating of fractures

SPNBF was invariably seen after 11 days but was uncommon before this time even in the very young. s the creation/evolution debate continues, there has been an increasing sophistication of certain Creationist arguments and publications.

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To fully understand Gentry's hypothesis a basic background in geology, mineralogy, and radiation physics is helpful.

The boxes on the next few pages present a brief tutorial in rocks, minerals, and radioactivity.

The following features were assessed: soft-tissue swelling, subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF), definition of fracture line, presence or absence of callus, whether callus was well or ill defined, and the presence of endosteal callus.

Agreement between observers was only moderate for all discriminators except SPNBF.

Certain minerals, such as zircon and monazite, which form as common trace constituents in igneous rocks, have crystal structures which can accommodate varying amounts of the naturally occurring radioactive elements, uranium and thorium.

When these minerals occur as inclusions in certain other minerals, most notably the mica family, they are often seen to develop discoloration, or "pleochroic" haloes.

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The haloes are caused by radiation damage to the host mineral's crystalline structure.

Figure 1 shows a typical discoloration halo around a radioactive mineral inclusion in the mineral pyroxene.

Igneous rocks form from molten material, and are further subdivided into two main categories, the volcanic rocks which form from lava extruded at or near the surface; and plutonic rocks which form from magma, deep within the crust.

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