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Michael Levi, professor of criminology at Cardiff University, remarked in August 2016 that it was ‘deeply regrettable’ fraud is being left out of the first index despite being the most common crime reported to police in the UK.

Professor Levi said ‘If you’ve got some categories that are excluded, they are automatically left out of the police’s priorities.’.

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That difficulty is found, for instance, in that each and every one of the elements of fraud must be proven, that the elements include proving the states of mind of the perpetrator and the victim, and that some jurisdictions require the victim to prove fraud by clear and convincing evidence.

The remedies for fraud may include rescission (i.e., reversal) of a fraudulently obtained agreement or transaction, the recovery of a monetary award to compensate for the harm caused, punitive damages to punish or deter the misconduct, and possibly others.

The National Fraud Authority (NFA) is the government agency co-ordinating the counter-fraud response in the UK.

Cifas is the UK's leading fraud prevention service, a not-for-profit membership organisation for all sectors that enables organisations to share and access fraud data using their databases.

Fraud is apparently low on the list UK law enforcement priorities.

Controversially, the crime does not feature on a new "Crime Harm Index" published by the Office for National Statistics.

In cases of a fraudulently induced contract, fraud may serve as a defense in a civil action for breach of contract or specific performance of contract.

Fraud may serve as a basis for a court to invoke its equitable jurisdiction.

Drawing from its reporting database of 261 organisations, Cifas found that 148,463 people reported having their identity stolen in 2015, up from 94,492 the previous year. Cifas has warned that social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter and Linked In are becoming a “hunting ground” for fraudsters.

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